The expansive and deepening field of dyslexia research shows the ratio of dyslexic students to be one in every five to six children. Dyslexic individuals have inefficient neural circuitry for processing written language (grapheme-phoneme relationships), causing reading, spelling, and writing to be tedious and time-consuming. These challenges are caused by underdeveloped phonological processing skills due to faulty or inadequate neural pathways and connections in the left posterior angular gyrus of the brain. Poor neural wiring among individuals with dyslexia also impacts auditory memory span, sequential (or procedural) memory, and the ability to remember arbitrary information (such as the names of states and capitals).
However, dyslexia is not empirically connected to low intelligence. Rather, dyslexia is linked to high levels of creativity, musical and artistic abilities, athletic prowess, three-dimensional spatial relations, finding unique solutions to problems, visionary/global thinking abilities, and keenness with connecting a constellation of ideas/information from various sources to create innovative solutions/plans.
Although no two individuals with dyslexia share identical neural circuitry, individuals with dyslexia tend to have similar weaknesses related to weak low-level language processing skills (e.g., rhyming, segmenting sounds, word retrieval, decoding, and spelling). Likewise, they tend to have notable strengths in some of the areas mentioned above due to a high-functioning right brain hemisphere. When individuals with dyslexia receive effective intervention through a multi-sensory, highly structured literacy program via intensive, frequent delivery model coupled with appropriate classroom (or workplace) accommodations, they are able to capitalize on their incredible strengths to be successful in school, college, career, and life.